An Intro to Quantum Computer
Nowadays The use of Quantum Computer is increasing to enhance the speed of computers. Quantum computers are computers which make use of the quantum states of subatomic particles to store information. Quantum computer uses the power of atoms to perform memory and processing tasks. These computers are becoming real.
Quantum computing studies theoretical computation systems (quantum computer) that make direct use of quantum- mechanical phenomenon, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the encoding of data must be in binary digits (bits). Each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1). Also, quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in a superposition of states.
Growth still at Infant Stage
As of 2017, the development of actual quantum computers is still in its infancy. But, The experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of quantum bits. Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military agencies are funding quantum computing research in an effort to develop quantum computers for civilian, business, trade, environmental and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.
Basic Concept & Theories
A quantum computer with a given number of qubits is fundamentally different from a classical computer. Classical Computer is composed of the same number of classical bits. For example, representing the state of an n-qubit system on a classical computer requires the storage of 2n complex coefficients. While to characterize the state of a classical n-bit system it is sufficient to provide the values of the n bits, that is, only n numbers. Integer factorization, which underpins the security of public key cryptographic systems. There is a belief, To be computationally infeasible with an ordinary computer for large integers if they are the product of few Prime numbers(e.g., products of two 300-digit primes). By comparison, a quantum computer could efficiently solve this problem using Shor’s algorithm to find its factors. This ability would allow a quantum computer to decrypt many of the cryptographic systems in use today.
In May 2017, IBM announced that it has successfully built and tested its most powerful universal quantum computing processors. So, now computation will be a lot more efficient and easy.